Thanks for your question.
The hard answer at the moment is no, you cannot use the Octopus Deploy repository as a source for Visual Studio.
The built in repository is a write-only environment. An option for those who do not have or have need for a package repository.
There is a little bit of internal debate around this issue, but currently we believe there are better products out there doing this job, and we’d like to keep our focus on deployment.
There is a bit of documentation about choosing a package repository which can be found here:
Sorry if this wasn’t the response you were looking for.